AMH: Anti-Müllerian hormone
Indicates the activity of the ovaries and provides information about the ovarian capacity.
Fimbria funnel. The opening of the fallopian tube that receives the egg. Fertilisation takes place there.
engl. „assisted hatching“
Embryo 5 days after fertilisation.
Ultrasound method for measuring blood flow according to the physical Doppler principle. Allows statements to be made about expected egg quality and endometrial quality. Poor blood flow to the endometrium can be improved by treatment with sildenafil (Viagra).
Corpus luteum. Forms the sex hormones, especially progesterone for maintenance.
Deep-freeze preservation of sperm cells, testicular tissue, oocytes, pronuclear stages, embryos.
German IVF Register. All stimulation cycles for IVF are recorded prospectively from day 7 of stimulation. Cases that are not entered by the 7th stimulation day do not count in the evaluation. Subsequent entries or changes are not possible, or are logged in a traceable manner, so that data manipulation is virtually impossible in the DIR.
Early miscarriage. Chromosomal defects of the embryo lead to failure to develop, failure to implant or miscarriage before the 12th week of pregnancy. Approximately 25% – 30% or more (depending on the woman’s age) of the earliest and early pregnancies are lost through miscarriage.
Embryo 3 days after fertilisation.
Reset fertilised eggs, 2-5 days after retrieval.
Infertility due to hormone disorders.
Tissue similar to the lining of the uterus outside the uterus, leads to pain, adhesions, sterility, etc. due to damage to the fallopian tubes.
Ovary in which the microscopically small egg cell is located and matures under the influence of hormones. The envelope cells of the follicle produce the sex hormone oestradiol.
Aspiration of the follicular fluid with oocyte under ultrasound vision.
Embryo 2 days after fertilisation.
The sperm lacks an acrosome. Such sperm cannot be absorbed into eggs. This disorder can be overcome by ICSI.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Causes the release and formation of the hormones of the pituitary gland = hypophysis.
Gonadotropins derived from human urine or produced by genetic engineering. Medication to stimulate the maturation of several eggs in the ovaries (usually only one egg matures in the natural cycle). Corresponding effect as FSH (and LH).
Human chorionic gonadotropin = pregnancy hormone. Has the same effect as LH and is therefore used as a drug to induce ovulation. It is also used as a medicine in the luteal phase = 2nd half of the cycle to support the function of the corpus luteum. Can cause hyperstimulation syndrome under certain conditions.
Behandlung mit Spendersamen.
Intrinsic or genetically engineered active substances. They usually travel from the site of formation to the site of action via the bloodstream and induce certain biochemical reaction processes there.
Region in the diencephalon that produces GnRH.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, injection of a sperm cell into an egg cell.
Multicentre prospective voluntary reporting of all ICSI pregnancies to an ICSI study central registry. Approximately 60 IVF centres participated over two years with relevant numbers. Recruitment had been completed since August 2000. Results had been available since November 2001. The ICSI study showed a slightly increased risk of malformation as a result of the procedure, but this seems to be less method-related than pair-related.
Infertility without demonstrable cause in the standard examinations. Functional disorders of sperm cells and/or oocytes are possible, as are genetic defects. Next to male infertility, the most common form of fertility disorder today.
Infertility caused by the body’s own defence substances against the embryo.
Implantation of the embryo.
1. injection of sperm into the uterus. 2. introduction of sperm cells to the oocytes in culture medium for IVF. 3. microinjection of a sperm cell into an egg cell (see below ICSI).
In vitro fertilisation = fertilisation “in a glass” = outside the body.
Luteinising = yellow body-inducing hormone, causes ovulation, formation of the corpus luteum and thus progesterone formation in the ovary.
Infertility due to the absence of sperm cells (due to sperm duct obstruction or lack of sperm cell formation) or due to too few or too few mobile or functionally restricted sperm cells.
Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration, extraction of sperm cells from the epididymis = epididymis. Today, TESE is usually preferred because it is associated with better fertilisation rates.
Embryo 4 days after fertilisation.
Oligo (few) – Astheno (poorly mobile) – Terato (malformed) – Zoospermia (sperm cells in the ejaculate).
Controls the formation of GnRH and gonadotropins, leads to various changes in the female sexual organs, including growth of the endometrium.
Ovary. Site of egg maturation and the formation of the female sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone.
Ovulation. Bursting of the mature follicle due to the influence of the gonadotropin LH or similar hormone action (cf. ß-HCG below) and release of the egg. The sheath cells become the corpus luteum.
Egg cell. Consists of outer shell = zona pellucida and ovum and 1st polar body.
Polycystic ovary syndrome = small cystic change in the ovaries, increase in masculinising sex hormones = androgens, tendency to acne, male type of hair, possibly overweight, less frequent periods. Infertility treatment often involves a risk of multiple births and overstimulation (see below).
The selection of mature sperm for performing ICSI through the PICSI® dish for qualitative sperm assessment significantly reduces the abortion rate. The test is performed again shortly before the intracytoplasmic sperm injection as part of IVF treatment in each IVF cycle.
Pituitary gland. Produces hormones which in turn control the function of other hormone-producing organs, e.g. gonadotropins for ovarian control o. e.g. hormone for controlling thyroid function.
GnRH analogue (see above) stops the body’s own gonadotropin action.
The pregnancy rate/embryo transfer gives little indication of the quality of outcome from the activities of an IVF working group. The quality of outcome is reflected exclusively by the birth rate / treatment cycle started according to DIR. Ask for it, let us show you the official DIR evaluations!
Genetic examination of the embryo by removing one or, more rarely, two cells (blastomeres) and subsequent analysis for chromosomal changes or genetic alterations.
Luteal hormone, prepares the lining of the uterus for implantation of the embryo and supports early pregnancy.
Oocyte approx. 16-20 hours after fertilisation (penetration/insertion of sperm). Ideally, every third pronuclear stage reaches the blastocyst stage.
Multiple pregnancy. Hyperstimulation syndrome (ÜSS).
Sperm cell, consists of head with acrosome, midpiece and tail. The acrosome is important for the uptake into the egg cell. The head contains the chromosomes = the genetic material. In the middle piece is a structure (centrosome) that is responsible for the fertilised egg’s ability to divide. If a certain number of sperm lack this cell organelle in the middle section, which cannot be detected by light microscopy in a conventional spermiogram, the man in question is absolutely and untreatably infertile. The tail causes the movement.
Antibodies = defence substances against sperm cells in man or woman.
Sperm cell examination.
“sperm” consisting only of tail and middle piece. Men who predominantly form spinheads are absolutely and untreatably infertile.
Treatment with gonadotropins. The aim is to mature several eggs that are equally capable of development.
Testicular sperm extraction, extraction of sperm from testicular tissue.
Testicles. Site of spermatogenesis and the formation of the male sex hormone.
Male sex hormone.
Ovary, forms pregnancy hormone. In this way, the embryo supports its own further development.
Ectopic pregnancy. Implantation of the embryo in the fallopian tube. In rare cases, if overlooked, can lead to life-threatening complications (burst fallopian tube, risk of bleeding). In IVF, in rare cases there is a combination of pregnancy in the uterus and pregnancy in the fallopian tube!
Infertility due to tubal occlusion or tubal dysfunction due to inflammation or endometriosis.
Tube (tubae uterinae)
Fallopian tube. The fertilised egg divides during the 4-5 days of its migration through one of the two fallopian tubes into the uterus until it becomes a blastocyst.
From human urine or genetically engineered gonadotropin (e.g. Fostimon, Bravelle / Gonal F, Puregon).
Menopausal gonadotropin derived from human urine, contains FSH and LH (e.g. Menogon HP).
Cyst formation in both ovaries triggered by HCG after stimulation and formation of significantly more than 10 follicles and possibly massive accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and between the lungs and pleura. In addition, vomiting may occur. Risk of thrombosis due to fluid loss.